Knowles' research was published in the EVJ September 2021 special issue for BEVA 2021 clinical research abstracts:
Knowles EJ, Elliott J, Harris PA, Menzies-Gow NJ
Predictors of laminitis development in non-laminitic ponies
Equine Veterinary Journal August 2021 Vol 53 Issue S55 Clinical Research Abstracts of the BEVA Congress 2021 p21-22. https://doi.org/10.1111/evj.31_13492
and as a full paper in the EVJ in March 2022:
Knowles EJ, Elliott J, Harris PA, Chang YM, Menzies-Gow NJ.
Predictors of laminitis development in a cohort of non-laminitic ponies.
Equine Vet J. 2022 Mar 9. doi: 10.1111/evj.13572. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35263471.
374 ponies were monitored for up to 4 years (giving 891 pony years - 891 pony years/374 ponies = an average of 2.4 years that a pony was followed for). The ponies were considered non-laminitic when they entered the study. Every 6 months blood was collected for measurement of basal ACTH, adiponectin, triglycerides, glucose and basal non-fasted insulin (T0), and an oral sugar test was carried out 60 minutes (T60) after administering 0.3 ml/kg bodyweight (rather than the standard 0.15 or 0.45 ml/kg) Karo Light corn syrup. Insulin was measured using a Tosoh AIA-360 Fluorescence Enzyme Immunoassay.
4.8 ponies developed laminitis per 100 pony years, or per 100 ponies/year. The ponies were divided into 3 groups - low, medium and high risk of laminitis depending on their basal T0 and 60 minutes after Karo Light corn syrup (T60) insulin results.
Measured factors that were associated with the development of laminitis included basal insulin, insulin 60 minutes after giving Karo Light corn syrup, adiponectin, and evidence of divergent hoof growth. Divergent hoof rings are a sign of chronic laminitis - at The Laminitis Site we have only seen divergent hoof rings where there is palmar rotation and usually (at least at some point) dorsal rotation and signs of compression in the toe wall/coronary band, therefore we would argue that seeing divergent hoof rings shows that a pony has already had laminitis, and is not predictive of future laminitis. Seeing divergent hoof rings means that x-rays should be taken to assess and guide the realignment of rotation/misalignment between pedal bone and hoof capsule.
ACTH was not associated with laminitis.
The 3 risk groups were:
Low: non-fasted basal insulin <21.6 uIU/ml, 70% of the population were in this group, so 261.8/374 ponies, incidence of laminitis was 6% in this group over 4 years.
Medium: non-fasted basal insulin 21.6-45.2 uIU/ml, 20% of the population were in this group, so 74.8/374 ponies, incidence of laminitis was 22% in this group over 4 years.
High: non-fasted basal insulin >45.2 uIU/ml, 10% of the population were in this group, so 37.4/374 ponies, incidence of laminitis was 69% in this group over 4 years.
Under Main limitations the abstract says "Results may not apply to different insulin assays...".
How does the Tosoh AIA-360 Fluorescence Enzyme Immunoassay compare e.g. to Immulite 2000 results? Was this assay validated for equine insulin?
What did the ponies eat before their basal non-fasted insulin blood collections?